TitleCarrageenan effect on the water retention and texture in processes turkey breast
NameLamarco-Fisher, Gail (author), Schaich, Karen (chair), Daun, Henry (internal member), Yam, Kit (internal member), Lamkey, James (outside member), Rutgers University, Graduate School - New Brunswick,
DescriptionA wide range of comminuted meat products are produced in the food industry for deli meats and sandwich products. A major problem in processing these meats, particularly low fat poultry products, is the loss of water (syneresis) and toughening of texture during cooking, accompanied by crumbling during slicing. To overcome these problems, carrageenan is often added to meats to bind water and entrap muscle tissue particles, providing a more cohesive product. Up to 1.5% carrageenan is permitted by law and early applications typically used these levels. However, high levels of carrageenan contribute distinctive off-flavors, textures uncharacteristic of meat, and decreased freeze-thaw stability. Consequently, the lowest levels feasible to maintain meat qualities should be used.
This study investigated stabilizing effects of low carrageenan levels (0.2, 0.4, and 0.6%) in processed turkey breast formulated with moisture: protein ratios of 4:1, 5:1, and 6:1. Ground turkey breast was tumbled with brine, packaged in bags, baked at 180° F, and cooled. Traditional meat properties of cook yield, refrigerator purge, freeze thaw stability, and textural characteristics were measured. Hydration and swelling vs. full solubilization and gelation of carrageenan were visualized microscopically.
At the lowest moisture level, protein and component salts controlled water binding; carrageenan added no extra stability and had little effect on cohesiveness or other textural attributes. In turkey breast formulations with higher moisture, carrageenan increased cook yields. Microscopy revealed hydrated, swollen, and intact carrageenan granules, as well as release and gelation of carrageenan polymers.
A mechanism to explain carrageenan action in meats was proposed. In low water systems, muscle proteins control water binding and carrageenan has no influence on product qualities. As added water increases, carrageenan binds excess water not bound by the proteins, and particles begin to swell, contributing to water retention and firmness in meat products. At the highest water levels, carrageenan binds sufficient water to burst some particles and release carrageenan polymers, which then gel in regions surrounding proteins. Some hydrated, swollen particles also remain intact and contribute to solidity. Carrageenan gelation contributes to softening of textures and freeze thaw stabilization in high moisture systems.
NoteIncludes bibliographical references (p. 76-80)
Noteby Gail Fisher
CollectionGraduate School - New Brunswick Electronic Theses and Dissertations
RightsThe author owns the copyright to this work.