TitlePerspective-taking accuracy on a conceptually complex problem
NameCutting, Maris F. (author), Chinn, Clark (chair), DeLisi, Richard (internal member), Hmelo-Silver, Cindy (internal member), Gehlbach, Hunter (outside member), Rutgers University, Graduate School - New Brunswick,
DescriptionPerspective taking is the process of constructing an understanding of other persons' ways of conceptualizing and responding to situations. It involves the effortfulemployment of strategies that enable individuals to visualize, understand, anticipate, or
predict the perceptions, thoughts, feelings, or actions of others. This is achieved when the observer attempts to create a mental model that corresponds to another's own mental model of situations. The present research was designed in the context of a model that views perspective taking as a process of constructing a representation that varies in difficulty according to (a) the degree of similarity between the perspective taker and the target person and (b) the degree of similarity between the perspective taker's own life situation and that of the person whose perspective is taken (target situation) (Cutting &Chinn, 2007).
The perspective-taking problem provided to participants (college students enrolled in an educational psychology course) is unlike most prior research on perspective taking. It required them to predict how a conceptually novel target person (a villager living in Los Molinos, Peru) responded to a dissimilar situation (introduction of water purification practices). Multiple source documents on this topic provided opportunities for participants to seek out information and adjust their mental models accordingly. In addition, a variety of prompts and scaffolds to promote strategy use were
examined for their influence on perspective-taking accuracy. Results from this study showed that brainstorming multiple predictions facilitated initial prediction accuracy and that new information in critical source documents enhanced final prediction accuracy.
However, cognitive biases, such as rationalizing anomalous information and confirmation bias, interfered with correcting inaccurate predictions.
NoteIncludes bibliographical references (150-163)
Noteby Maris F. Cutting
CollectionGraduate School - New Brunswick Electronic Theses and Dissertations
RightsThe author owns the copyright to this work.