TitleIntegration of biogenic emissions in environmental fate, transport, and exposure systems
NameEfstathiou, Christos I. (author), Georgopoulos, Panos (chair), Isukapalli, Sastry (internal member), Lathrop, Richard (internal member), Mainelis, Gediminas (internal member), Bielory, Leonard (outside member), Rutgers University, Graduate School - New Brunswick,
DescriptionBiogenic emissions include a major, but highly uncertain, source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols that are emitted in the atmosphere. These two groups are involved as direct or indirect offenders of human health when transported during photochemical episodes and allergy seasons. Biogenic hydrocarbons are a significant fraction of the total VOC emission inventories for the United States and contribute to the formation of tropospheric ozone. Bioaerosols, including pollens, spores, and fungi are emitted seasonally and can lead to asthma exacerbation, irritation of the upper respiratory tract, and allergic response to a large portion of the population. Although all applications of photochemical modeling in a regulatory setting require the quantification of biogenic hydrocarbons, bioaerosols are currently not incorporated in the urban airshed models. Furthermore, the current biogenic emission estimation models and urban airshed models use low-resolution data for estimating vegetation biomass and VOC emissions.
In this study, the geographical information systems ArcInfo and ArcMap were used to construct a high resolution, spatially accurate vegetation biomass and biogenic emissions database for the Northeast United States region. A number of sources of data on vegetation cover parameters were evaluated, and the final mappings incorporated information from the MODIS satellite instrument. Perl and MATLAB were used to interface the CMAQ photochemical model and the improved database aggregate. In addition, a pollen emission model that uses the same geodatabase components was developed for the same region. The two-fold aim of this study is to extend the common framework for additional biogenic emissions while improving the current methodologies for estimating biogenic VOCs.
The methodologies developed in this work are presented along with the final composite geodatabase applications. The strong dependence of biogenic emissions on the spatial distribution of vegetation species made the use of a GIS an ideal method for improving biogenic emission estimates. Modifications in related portions of the CMAQ model were necessary in order to include these additional sources. Finally, this research identifies uncertainties associated with biogenic model structure and resolution with application to photochemical air quality modeling.
NoteIncludes bibliographical references (p. 199-232)
Noteby Christos I. Efstathiou
CollectionGraduate School - New Brunswick Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Organization NameRutgers, The State University of New Jersey
RightsThe author owns the copyright to this work.