TitleDevelopment of lead-free piezoelectric thin films by pulsed laser deposition
NameAbazari Torghabeh, Maryam (author), Safari, Ahmad (chair), Khachaturyan, Armen (internal member), Chhowalla, Manish (internal member), Klein, Lisa (internal member), Cheong, Sang-Wook (outside member), Rutgers University, Graduate School - New Brunswick,
SubjectMaterials Science and Engineering,
DescriptionAs a high performance piezoelectric material widely used in sensors, actuators and other electronic devices, lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics have been the center of attention for many years. However, the toxicity of these materials and their exposure to the environment during processing steps, such as calcination, sintering, machining as well as problems in recycling and disposal have been major concerns regarding their usage all around the globe for the past couple of decades. Consequently, utilizing lead-based materials for many commercial applications have been recently restricted in Europe and Asia and measures are being taken in United States as well. Therefore, there is an urgent need for lead-free piezoelectrics whose properties are comparable to those of well-known PZT materials. Recently, the discovery of ultra-high piezoelectric activity in the ternary lead-free KNaNbO3-LiTaO3-LiSbO3 (KNN-LT-LS) and (Bi,Na)TiO3-(Bi,K)TiO3-BaTiO3 (BNT-BKT-BT) systems have given hope for alternatives to PZT. Furthermore, the demand for new generation of environment-friendly functional devices, utilizing piezoelectric materials, inspired a new surge in lead-free piezoelectric thin film research. In this study, an attempt has been made to explore the development of lead-free piezoelectric thin films by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) on SrTiO3 substrate. While the growth and development process of KNN-LT-LS thin films was the primary goal of this thesis, a preliminary effort was also made to fabricate and characterize BNT-BKT-BT thin films. In a comprehensive and systematic process optimization study in conjunction with X-ray diffractometry, the phase evolution, stoichiometry, and growth orientation of the films are monitored as a function of deposition conditions including temperature and ambient oxygen partial pressure. Processing parameters such as substrate temperature and pressure are shown to be highly dominant in determining the phase and composition of the films. Oxygen partial pressure has shown to control the chemical composition of the films through solid-gaseous phase equilibrium and substrate temperature has mostly influenced the growth mode and microstructure. Findings of this study has shown that 300-500 nm single-phase epitaxial KNN-LT-LS and BNT-BKT-BT thin films could indeed be obtained at a temperature of 700-750 oC and 300-400 mTorr of oxygen partial pressure. Following a series of studies on effect of doping, it was revealed that addition of 1 mol% Mn to KNN-LT-LS composition resulted in a significant suppression of leakage current and enhancement of polarization saturation. A remanent polarization of 16 C/cm2 and coercive field of 20 kV/cm were measured for such thin film, which are comparable to those of hard PZT counterparts. Also, a high remanent polarization and coercive field of 30 C/cm2 and 95 kV/cm were achieved in 350 nm BNT-BKT-BT thin films. Longitudinal (d33) and transverse (e31,f) piezoelectric coefficients of KNN-LT-LS thin films were found to be 55 pm/V and -4.5 C/m2 respectively, prepared at the optimized conditions, whereas 350 nm BNT-BKT-BT thin films exhibited an e31,f of -2.25 C/m2. The results of this study present the great potential of KNN-LT-LS and BNT-BKT-BT thin films for piezoelectric MEMS devices and provide a baseline for future investigations on lead-free piezoelectric thin films.
NoteIncludes bibliographical references
Noteby Maryam Abazari Torghabeh
CollectionGraduate School - New Brunswick Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Organization NameRutgers, The State University of New Jersey
RightsThe author owns the copyright to this work.