TitleEffects of drying methods on the stability of 2, 4-decadienal encapsulated in an o/w nanoemulsion
NameLee, Diana (author), HUANG, QINGRONG (chair), Lee, Tung-Ching (co-chair), HO, CHI-TANG (co-chair), Rutgers University, Graduate School - New Brunswick,
Food additives industry--Production standards,
Food additives industry,
DescriptionThe flavor industry has utilized many encapsulation methods in order to provide customers with stable flavors that maintain their integrity during various processing procedures. Savory flavors in particular have a unique hurdle to overcome, as they are subject to extreme temperature abuse, such as frying, baking, sautéing, and boiling. Highly sensitive compounds such as 2,4-Decadienal, that provide distinct characteristics to savory foods such as french fries and chicken, are particularly susceptible to change during these processes. Using oil in water nanoemulstions of diameters between 20-800 nanometers as well as various drying methods to encapsulate volatile compounds have been an exciting avenue for flavor encapsulation. The present research will focus on the stability of 2,4-Decadienal using oil in water nanoparticles of medium chain triglycerides (Neobee) in addition to multilayer encapsulation; spray drying and freeze drying. A slurry of 2,4-decadienal, maltodextrin, gum, Neobee and water were homogenized via high speed at 13,500 rpm and high pressure under 1500 bar to create a stable nanoemulsion. Half of the emulsion was then spray dried, while the remaining emulsion was freeze dried. Powdered finished samples were stored at 5°C (refrigeration), 25°C (ambient), 40°C (summer day), and 60°C (abuse/accelerated) for thirty days. Gas Chromatography with a flame ionization detector was used to measure ppm levels of 2,4-Decadienal in samples on appointed days. Mass Chromatography was then used to determine degradation compounds. Freeze-dried samples yielded the best protection against oxidation, retro-aldol condensation, and over all degradation by as much as 50% amongst the widest range of shelf life temperatures. Higher temperature storage allowed twice as much development of degradation products, such as 2-octenal, hexanal, octanoic acid, hexanoic acid, and 2-nonenal compared to refrigerated storage. Freeze dried encapsulation faired the best at refrigeration temperatures due to its crystalline structure. Medium chain triglycerides nanoparticles proved to be beneficial in retaining volatile compounds in conjunction with freeze drying. The higher heat, the longer the holding time, and the larger amount of oxygen present, accelerated 2,4-decadienal degradation in any encapsulation method. This study found that freeze drying a lipid nanoparticle with a volatile aldehyde, proved to be superior in retaining and preventing degradation compared to that of spray drying. Overall, the encapsulated samples retained 2,4-Decadienal significantly better than the unprotected reference. Future studies using various solid lipids should be examined.
NoteIncludes bibliographical references
Noteby Diana Y. Lee
CollectionGraduate School - New Brunswick Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Organization NameRutgers, The State University of New Jersey
RightsThe author owns the copyright to this work.