TitleWeighted K-nearest neighbor algorithm as an object localization technique using passive RFID tags
NameShetty, Akshay (author), Marsic, Ivan (chair), Gajic, Zoran (internal member), Parashar, Manish (internal member), Rutgers University, Graduate School - New Brunswick,
SubjectElectrical and Computer Engineering,
Radio frequency identification systems--Technological innovations,
Radio frequency identification systems--Design and construction,
Medical care--Technological innovations
DescriptionTechnologies using identification by radio frequencies (RFID) are experiencing rapid development and healthcare is a major application area benefiting from it. Highly pervasive RFID enables remote identification, tracking and localization of the medical staff, patients, medications and equipment, thus increasing safety, optimizing in real-time management and providing support for new ambient-intelligent services. This thesis describes and evaluates an algorithm that enables object localization and tracking using passive RFID tags. This thesis also describes scenarios of how this technology can be used as a part of building a smart trauma resuscitation room by tracking the equipments. The main contribution of this thesis is the adaptation of the Weighted K-Nearest Neighbor Algorithm as a localization technique to track objects in a confined and crowded space by using passive RFID tags. The input parameter to the algorithm is the received signal strength indicator (RSSI), which gives a measure of back-scattered radio frequencies from passive tags. While using RFID technology special attention has to be given to the placement of antennas to get the optimum result. Therefore, we analyzed various antenna placement configurations with mean error and error consistency as the two performance parameters. The detection of multiple tags and human occlusion are two major concerns while tracking tags in a confined space with many team members collaborating on solving a problem. The RF signal can be interrupted by people walking around randomly and holding multiple (tagged) instruments at the same time. While the algorithm worked fine when tracking multiple tags, we had to modify the experimental set-up and attach an antenna onto the ceiling (which we call a vertical antenna), so that even if all the wall antennas are blocked we get at least one input parameter to base our localization decision on. We evaluated the algorithm for different combinations of configurations and number of neighbors, and achieved the following results. The best results were obtained for the 3 antennae (placed orthogonally) configuration considering the 4 nearest neighbors wherein a mean error rate of 15% of the maximum possible error was achieved under ideal conditions. We tested the algorithm for different human occlusion scenarios i.e. blocking 1 or 2 wall antennas, standing in random positions and then roaming in the field area randomly. The mean error rate for the standing scenario was measured as 20% of the maximum possible error and 18% in the case of roaming configuration. The error was found to be consistently within our defined maximum error for 100% of the recorded readings. The results obtained were found to be satisfactory for our application where, more than the exact location of the object, knowing whether the object is within a particular region is good enough for the users to know what task is being carried out in the trauma bay. Also the algorithm holds good in an indoor environment having a lot of factors and materials which affect the RF signal disrupting accurate calculation of the location co-ordinates. The algorithm does not require extensive data collection prior to implementation which makes it easily deployable in any environment. Apart from the problems mentioned there are some other factors like materials on which the tags are attached and orientation of tags which were found to be potential hindrances for accurate localization. Acceptable solutions to these problems form a part of our future work.
NoteIncludes bibliographical references
Noteby Akshay Shetty
CollectionGraduate School - New Brunswick Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Organization NameRutgers, The State University of New Jersey
RightsThe author owns the copyright to this work.