TitleThe illegal parrot trade in the neo-tropics
NamePires, Stephen Ferreira (author), Clarke, Ronald (chair), Miller, Joel (internal member), Braga, Anthony (internal member), Maxfield, Michael (outside member), Rutgers University, Graduate School - Newark,
Black marketeers ,
DescriptionDue to the global illegal parrot trade in conjunction with habitat loss, parrots are among the most threatened bird species in the world. Despite laws against parrot poaching throughout the neo-tropics, the lack of enforcement in the wild and in city pet markets enables poachers, itinerant fences (i.e. middlemen), and sellers to continue in the illegal wildlife trade while parrot populations further decline. Recent publications, which take account of parrot poaching variation in Mexico, Bolivia, and Peru, have enabled criminologists to attempt to explain why some parrot species tend to be poached more often than others. Using two recent studies that look at illicit pet markets in 7 cities within Peru and Bolivia (Gastanaga et al., 2010; Herrera and Hennessey, 2008), this dissertation will analyze why some parrot species end up on any of the seven illicit pet markets (N=50) and why some species were never found on any illicit pet market despite their close proximity to one (N=17). Using the CRAVED model (Clarke, 1999) and the Choice-Structuring Properties (Clarke and Cornish, 1987) concept to examine the illegal parrot trade, this study finds that illicit parrot markets are not homogenous in nature. Using GIS data on where parrot ranges are relative to the illicit markets they appear on, this study reveals there are three types of illicit parrot markets: local, regional, and feeder markets. Local markets will mostly be comprised of highly local species, whereas regional markets will obtain species from very far off distances via itinerant fences. Feeder markets on the other hand, are mostly responsible for creating a large internal parrot trade within countries such as Peru and Bolivia. They supply not only local demand, but also supply other cities with parrots. This study also finds support for opportunity-based factors such as availability and abundance in relation to poaching risk. This is now the third study to substantiate these concepts as the most important factors related to poaching. Other CRAVED factors such as enjoyability and removability were not found to be significantly related to poaching, despite previous findings in Bolivia and Mexico showing otherwise.
NoteIncludes bibliographical references
Noteby Stephen Ferreira Pires
CollectionGraduate School - Newark Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Organization NameRutgers, The State University of New Jersey
RightsThe author owns the copyright to this work.