TitleIdentifying the best context for CCTV camera deployment
NamePiza, Eric L. (author), Caplan, Joel M (chair), Clarke, Ronald V (internal member), Kennedy, Leslie W (internal member), Fisher, Wayne S (outside member), Rutgers University, Graduate School - Newark,
Closed-circuit television in police work--New Jersey--Newark--Case studies,
Video surveillance--New Jersey--Newark--Case studies
DescriptionCCTV has become a mainstream crime prevention mechanism around the world. Despite the popularity of the technology, evidence of CCTV’s crime prevention capabilities is inconclusive. Little research has attempted to identify factors contributing to this variance. Research designs have been largely one-dimensional in nature with most evaluations exclusively testing CCTV’s deterrence capabilities. Data related to the detection and response to crime has been largely ignored. In addition, units of analysis typically focus on aggregate land usage and fail to capture the unique characteristics of each camera’s surrounding environment. Collectively, these shortcomings have resulted in a lack of “transferrable lessons” that can help identify the ideal context for CCTV. This dissertation is comprised of two separate analyses of the CCTV system in Newark, NJ. The first measured the influence of a series of independent variables on the effectiveness of CCTV. Viewsheds of individual camera sites, rather than the CCTV system as a whole, were utilized as units of analysis. The variables were grouped into five categories: environmental features (14), camera design (2), line of sight (4), enforcement activity (4), and pre-intervention crime levels (1). A series of regression models tested the influence of the independent variables on six separate crime categories. The analysis generated three main findings. First, high levels of proactive surveillance activity resulting in police enforcement were significantly related to the reduction of most crime types. Secondly, certain environmental features had a criminogenic effect in CCTV areas, with the concentration of specific environs being significantly related to crime increases. Thirdly, there may be somewhat of a “deterrence threshold” in respect to CCTV, with a certain level of pre-installation crime being necessary for cameras to produce a crime reduction. These findings influenced the research design of the second analysis, which measured the effect of the overall CCTV system. A Propensity Score Matching technique incorporating pre-intervention crime levels and criminogenic environmental features was utilized to select equivalent control areas. The system-wide analysis found that auto theft was the only crime to have experienced a statistically significant reduction, as well as a diffusion of crime control benefits to the surrounding area. The fact that a large number of cameras in the system produced little-to-no enforcement activity was identified as a contributing factor to the lack of a system-wide reduction of most crime types. The dissertation concludes with a discussion of how police may be able to design CCTV programs in a manner that overcomes traditional barriers to video surveillance, which may maximize their deterrent effect.
NoteIncludes bibliographical references
Noteby Eric L. Piza
CollectionGraduate School - Newark Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Organization NameRutgers, The State University of New Jersey
RightsThe author owns the copyright to this work.