TitleSolvent-free beta-carotene nanoparticles for food fortification
NameHuynh, Phong Tien (author), Takhistov, Paul (chair), Karwe, Mukund V (internal member), Yam, Kit (internal member), Khusid, Boris (outside member), Rutgers University, Graduate School - New Brunswick,
DescriptionMost nutraceutical compounds are poorly-water soluble. Their low solubility decreases the adsorption rate in living organisms leading to their low bioavailability. Utilization of nanoparticles is a promising way to improve the solubility of hydrophobic compounds. Nanoparticles increase the total surface area of the poorly-water soluble nutraceuticals making them more bioavailable. Some traditional methods for decreasing particle size include pearl or jet milling, where particles are broken down through grinding or collisions under high pressure. These mechanical processes not only require high energy input but also raise a concern of milling media residues. The high pressure homogenizer approach applies implosion forces and collision of particles to generate nanosuspensions. This method requires microsuspensions as starting material and consumes high energy. Among several emulsion-based techniques for preparing nanoparticles, solvent diffusion practice is a novel approach in which a poorly-water soluble compound is transferred into nanoemulsion droplets of a partially water-soluble organic solvent. The compound then crystallizes because the solvent diffuses out of the emulsion droplets. The key point of proposed emulsion-diffusion technology is that the phase transition occurs within an isolated nanoemulsion droplet. The main purpose of this study is to develop a “green” and scalable method for preparing nanosuspensions of highly hydrophobic compounds. We use FDA GRAS ingredients to create nanoparticles of poorly-water soluble nutraceuticals. β-carotene is selected as a model hydrophobic nutraceutical. Triacetin, a partially- water soluble triacetate compound, is used as the dispersed phase of nanoemulsions. The influence of surfactant, water concentration, and homogenization time on particle size and stability is investigated. The impact of surfactant on diffusion flux of triacetin is studied. Kolmogorov theory is applied to reveal the breakup mechanism of emulsion droplets under shear and predict their size. A mathematical model is built to discover the size of emulsion droplet during the formation of nanosuspensions. It is hoped that the this work will greatly advance the manufacture of nanoparticles of poorly-water soluble nutraceuticals
NoteIncludes bibliographical references
Noteby Phong Tien Huynh
CollectionGraduate School - New Brunswick Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Organization NameRutgers, The State University of New Jersey
RightsThe author owns the copyright to this work.